Dr. Batmanghelidj claims that dehydration causes a severe depletion
of the amino acid tryptophan in the brain. And tryptophan (along with
its derivatives serotonin, tryptamine, melatonin and indolamine)
operates a measuring mechanism for the amount of salt that is kept in
the body. As tryptophan dependent neurotransmitter systems become less
effective with dehydration, then the histamine and RA system becomes
increasingly engaged in inducing salt retention; for the body retains
salt in an effort to keep water in the body. Water shortage and
consequent histamine release increases the breakdown of tryptophan in
the liver. When there is adequate water and the brain's tryptophan
levels are restored, and so histamine-operated systems will revert to
their primary nonexaggerated functions.
Tryptophan is also an important precursor to acetyl-CoA, which in turn
is responsible for manufacture of cholesterol and acetylcholine. During
dehydration more of the body's tryptophan is perhaps assigned to
cholesterol production for waterproofing vessels and cell membranes
against water loss. The sebum produced by the sebaceous glands contains
cholesterol and cholesterol esters among other things. If you drink
adequate water you will notice the pores on your face become finer and
no longer fill with excess sebum. This means that more tryptophan is
made available for other things than plugging the dam against water
Since tryptophan is an essential amino acid and cannot be manufactured
by the body, it must be imported through daily food intake. During
stress typtophan seems to be one of the most important amino acids that
are broken down and reconstituted to other proteins. We can surmise
that during the hyperactivation of an awakening many of the consequent
conditions generate a tryptophan deficiency: prolonged stress,
catabolism of tissues, gluconeogenesis, increased water demand and
increased histamine release. Thus during kundalini we need to make a
conscious effort to preserve our tryptophan reserves through adequate
hydration, exercise and a diet rich in tryptophan. A diet too high in
fatty foods also depletes tryptophan, while exercise tends to build up
tryptophan reserves in the brain.
Tryptophan is the precursor to Serotonin, an inhibitory
neurotransmitter needed for sleep, relaxation, satiety and temperature
regulation. It is also the precursor to Picolinic acid which assists in
Zinc assimilation. Tryptophan also stimulates Growth Hormone Release,
increases the pain threshold, reduces sugar craving and compulsivity.
The nutritional supplement 5-Hydroxy Tryptophan (5-HTP) is a form of
which 70% is converted to Serotonin compared with 5% with L-tryptophan.
A safe dose is 50-100 mg/day of 5-HTP. It is found as a component of
dietary protein, particularly in spinach, spirulina, seaweed,
chocolate, oats, bananas, dried dates, milk, yogurt, cottage cheese,
meat, fish, turkey, chicken, eggs, sesame, mushrooms and peanuts.
Tryptophan is the precursor to the water-soluble
vitamin Niacin (nicotinic acid) or B3.
The synthesis of niacin from tryptophan also depends on enzymes that
require vitamin B6 and riboflavin, as well as an enzyme containing heme
(iron). On average, 1 mg of niacin can be synthesized from the
ingestion of 60 mg of tryptophan.
Living organisms derive most of their energy from
oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, which are processes involving
the transfer of electrons. As many as 200 enzymes require the niacin
coenzymes NAD and NADP, mainly to accept or donate electrons for redox
reactions. Niacin is involved in cellular respiration as it is used by
the body to form the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD)
and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). These two
coenzymes are capable of receiving hydrogen atoms in the Krebs cycle.
This cycle is one that unlocks the energy found in fats, proteins, and
carbohydrates. In addition to its synthesis from dietary niacin, NAD
may also be synthesized in the liver from the dietary amino acid,
tryptophan. Without NAD and NADP, the cycle could not function properly
and you couldn't use any of the energy from the food you ingest.
NAD functions most often in reactions involving the breakdown
(catabolism) of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and alcohol to produce
energy. NADP functions more often in biosynthetic (anabolic) reactions,
such as in the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. Like the other
B vitamins, niacin helps in the metabolism of fats. Medical doses of
niacin can help lower blood fat (cholesterol) and free fatty acids.
Niacin is a vasodilator, which produces a hot flush and itching
sensation throughout your entire body. It does this by stimulating
prostaglandin release, which dilates blood vessels thus lowering blood
pressure and heart rate. Because of its ability to dilate the veins,
niacin can help in headaches and promote the free flow of blood. Due to
itching and heat megadosage of nicotinic acid is not advised, it is
preferred to take nicotinamide, which is another form of vitamin B3
normally used in nutritional supplements.
B3 is involved in cellular respiration and the generation of ATP, so
some of the heat flush could be ascribed to an increase in metabolism
due to increased B3 levels. During kundalini the body might be
scavenging tryptophan to convert to B3 and NAD/NADP in order to
increase metabolism according to the demand of the hyperactived HPA
axis. The heat of kundalini would thereby follow the same rhythmic
cycle as cortisol and adrenaline release throughout the day. Such a
niacin production cycle could contribute to the kundalini symptoms of
heat, tingles, alertness, expanded heart and vessels, coupled with
fatigue from low blood pressure. Obviously the end result of this
utilization of tryptophan in "emergency" energy production would be a
tryptophan deficiency. This would mean a down-regulation of serotonin
and melatonin production and associated depression. Higher levels of
estrogen associated with various phases of kundalini would increase the
efficiency of niacin synthesis from tryptophan.
The niacin coenzyme, NAD, is the substrate (reactant) for used by
the body to form the coenzyme ADP-ribosyl cyclase, which catalyzes the
formation of cyclic ADP-ribose, a molecule that works within cells to
provoke the release of calcium ions from internal storage sites, and probably also plays a role in cell signaling.
Evidence indicates that high levels of nicotinamide (but not
nicotinic acid) protect b-cells from damage by toxic chemicals and free
radicals from inflammatory white blood cells. Interferon-gamma (IF-g)
is a cytokine produced by cells of the immune system in response to
infection. IF-g is known to increase the breakdown of tryptophan.
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), increases the risk
of niacin deficiency. Higher levels of niacin intake were associated
with decreased progression rate to AIDS and improved survival.
The tolerable upper intake level for niacin is 35 mg/day to avoid
the adverse effect of flushing. Good sources of niacin include yeast,
meat, poultry, fish, cereals, legumes, seeds, milk and green leafy
Cysteine is a sulphur containing non-essential amino acid, which is
formed from methionine. It is necessary in the detoxification of
harmful toxins, protecting the liver and brain from damage. It is
required in the manufacture of taurine and is a component of
glutathione, the body's main antioxidant. Skin nails and hair contain
cysteine - and it is not only important in collagen production but also
assists in skin elasticity and texture. Cysteine has been found to help
strengthen the protective lining of the stomach and intestines; having
a healthy gut also boosts immunity because about 65% of your immune
system is in the GI tract. N-acetylcysteine helps to prevent side
effects from chemotherapy and radiation therapy. NAC has shown positive
effects on liver function, protecting the liver from heavy metals like
lead and mercury. L-cysteine can also be converted into glucose (for
energy production) when blood glucose levels are low and this
conversion may enhance athletic endurance and prevent muscle catabolism.
Free radicals are constantly produced in biological tissues and play
a role in various signaling pathways. Abnormally high free radical
concentrations cause oxidative stress associated with tissue damage and
dysregulation of physiological signals. Such oxidative stress increases
The secret to long life is to reduce circulating insulin levels by
preventing blood sugar spiking and to increase the sensitivity of
insulin receptors. Cysteine is used in the body to produce taurine,
which might reduce HPA axis activation thereby preventing insulin
overactivity. Taurine helps to regulate blood pressure, helps maintain
good vision and eye function, and aides in thermogenesis (fat burning)
and muscle building.
L-cysteine is also a component of the hormone insulin.
N-acetylcysteine and taurine prevent hyperglycemia-induced insulin
resistance possibly through preventing oxidative stress. Exposure to
high concentrations of glucose and insulin results in insulin
resistance, or glucose intolerance. High glucose has also been
associated with oxidative stress, and increased levels of free radicals
have been proposed to cause insulin resistance. Studies show that
oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of
hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance.
L-cysteine is essential for T-cell production and immune system
activation. Studies show that cysteine facilitates the proliferation of
lymphocytes, while glutamate inhibits their proliferation. Youthful
parameters can be improved through adequate dietary consumption of
cysteine--found in high protein foods such as poultry, wheat, broccoli,
eggs as well as garlic, onions and red peppers. N-acetylcysteine (NAC)
has been shown to be more effective at boosting glutathione levels than
supplements of cystine or even of glutathione itself, probably because
NAC is more water soluble, and therefore more bioavailable than regular
A safe Upper Limit is around 200mg 2-3 times a day (must be taken with Vitamins C and B Complex).
Insulin has anabolic effects on protein synthesis. Besides letting
sugar into the cells insulin also opens the gates for the uptake of
water and other elements. To conserve energy and ration water during
dehydration the body will reduce insulin secretion and thereby increase
blood sugar. When dehydration is so chronic that the body's
neurotransmitter systems (particularly serotonin) are affected,
the brain initiates measures to ensure adequate glucose for energy.
When there is inadequate water for hydroelectricity histamine is
stimulated and activates prostaglandins (PG) to help prioritize water
distribution. PG-E acts on the pancreas to inhibit insulin production,
because insulin's action on cells is to increase the uptake of water
along with sugar, potassium and amino acids. In this way free water can
be conserved for "priority functions" such as the pancreas's important
job of creating the bicarbonate solution that neutralizes the chime in
the small intestine.
Several regions of the brain including the hypothalamus participate
in the regulation of hunger and satiation. Insulin, leptin and free
fatty acids are metabolic modulators of the changes in the brain
related to feeding. Insulin stimulates synthesis of arachydonic acid
and prostaglandins-Series 2 that are pro anti-inflammatory,
vasoconstricting, pro-carcinogen and pro-hypertensive.
Since my last awakening my insulin resistance is up (glucose
intolerance)...and I find I cannot tolerate cooked carbohydrates of a
high glycemic nature...the next day after eating rice or quinoa I am
very thick headed and descended. The glycemic index for rice ranges all
the way from 54 to 132 and for potatoes from 67 to 158. Pearled barley
has a glycemic index of 36 which is much lower than any other grain.
Hulless barley--particularly the non-waxy variety--has an even lower
glycemic index than pearled barley, because pearling removes some of
You can add fat to a high glycemic food, which will reduce the
glycemic response, but the insulin response could remain unchanged.
This means that a combination of fat and sugar produces a mild glycemic
response, but a powerful fat-storing insulin response. When high
glycemic foods are totally replaced with low glycemic foods, the result
is an overall decline in blood sugar and insulin levels.
, a member of the interleukin-6 cytokine family, is one of
the peptides used regulation of food intake, energy expenditure, and
whole body energy balance. Leptin is found in multiple tissues and
secreted by white adipose cells, where it is highly correlated with the
degree of body fat and size of fat cells. The peripheral effects of
leptin include regulation of insulin secretion
, and energy
metabolism in fat cells and skeletal muscle, where it appears to ensure
the maintenance of adequate energy stores and thereby protects against
Cortisol and insulin are potent stimulators of leptin, whereas
beta-adrenergic agonists reduce leptin expression. Since leptin levels
are chronically increased in obese humans, it is assumed that obesity may be associated with malfunctioning leptin receptors (leptin resistance),
since leptin is unable to generate an adequate response when its
receptor is occupied. Improving the sensitivity of leptin receptors in
obese patients may be one key to appetite reduction and weight loss.
The Neuroendocrine Theory of Aging proposes ageing is associated
with elevated levels of glucose, insulin and leptin along with the
down-regulation of receptors--that is insulin resistance and leptin resistance.
Leptin and insulin receptor sensitivity can be improved by preventing
blood sugar spikes and when receptor sensitivity is reinstated serum
levels of these hormones come down. The key is to avoid spiking of
blood sugar from excessive sugar/carbohydrate consumption
(hyperglycemia)...this then prevents elevated levels of these hormones
and averts the down-regulation of receptors. By increasing receptor
sensitivity this then resets the hypothalamus and appetite is reduced.
It stands to reason then our carbohydrate quotient should consist of
low glycemic, non-starchy, high fiber foods to prevent blood sugar
spiking. Constantly provoking leptin and insulin levels with erratic
compulsive eating patterns creates insulin resistance/diabetes,
obesity, oxidation of receptors and inflammation.
Fish oil is known to increase the sensitivity of insulin and leptin
receptors, but spirulina is a more direct (lower on the food chain) way
to get your omega oils. Spirulina contains more Omega 6 and Omega 3
than any other whole-food source and itís 58 times richer in organic
iron than raw spinach. It contains every natural known antioxidant
including zinc, manganese, selenium and copper, vitamin E, vitamins B-1
and B-6, the amino acid methionine and beta-carotene. It is rich in
chlorophyll, much richer than wheat grass and alfalfa and is a complete
(See Kundalini and Diet--for optimal serum factor levels and
receptor sensitivity I recommend a combination of the RAVE diet and the
For restoring receptor sensitivity see Ward Dean M.D's articles at www.vrp.com Neuroendocrine Theory of Aging Chapter 7 Restoring Receptor Sensitivity: Parts I to V.
ATP & GTP
(ATP) is the "molecular currency" of
intracellular energy transfer molecule found in the cells of all living
things. ATP captures chemical energy obtained from the breakdown of
food molecules and releases it to fuel other cellular processes. Cells
require energy to drive metabolic reactions, to transport needed
substances across membranes; and to do mechanical work, such as moving
muscles. ATP cannot be stored, hence its consumption must closely
follow its synthesis. To supply the energy needs it is amazing that 1
kilogram of ATP is created per hour, processed and then recycled.
Chemical energy storage is the job of carbohydrates, such as glycogen,
and fats. When energy is needed by the cell, it is converted from
storage molecules into ATP. ATP then serves as a energy currency,
delivering energy to places within the cell where energy-consuming
activities are taking place. It is produced as an energy source during
the processes of photosynthesis and cellular respiration. ATP is also
one of four monomers required for the synthesis of ribonucleic acids
(RNA). Furthermore, in signal transduction pathways, ATP is used to
provide the phosphate for protein-kinase reactions.
(GTP) is a purine nucleotide that is
incorporated into the growing RNA chain during RNA synthesis, and used
as a source of energy for protein synthesis. GTP is also essential to
signal transduction, where it is converted to GDP (guanosine
diphosphate) through the action of GTPases. GTP is involved in energy
transfer within the cell. For instance, one GTP molecule is generated
for every turn of the citric acid cycle. This is equivalent to the
generation of one molecule of ATP since GTP is readily converted to ATP
Caffeine leads to the exhaustion of the energy reserves of cells by
conversion of ATP to AMP and similarly aspartate converts the energy
molecule GTP to into its "ash" GMP. [Adenosine monophospate (AMP) is a
nucleotide found in RNA. It can be converted to IMP freeing one ammonia
group. In a catabolic pathway AMP can be converted to uric acid and
excreted from the body. AMP can be synthesized during ATP synthesis by
combining two ADP molecules.]
Bio-Electromagnetics of Water
The following is not from Dr. Batmanghelidj's work, but is an
emerging science of how water can raise and lower its vibration with
regards to treatment, and possible influences on life-cells of these
various water frequencies.
Each cell is a receiver and transmitter of vibration, with its own
characteristic frequency. Each cell in the body receives vibrational
energies from the earth and nature. Every atom, molecule, or substance
has its own unique oscillation pattern, or vibration, which can be
measured in electromagnetic wavelengths, or "Bovis." This energy is
also referred to as "Biophotons", which are light particles invisible
to our eyes. The Life Force Index or Bovis Scale was named after a
French physicist Antoine Bovis, who postulated this scale while doing
research among the Great Pyramids of Egypt in the 1930's.
This Bovis Energy Scale measures how positively or negatively
charged a substance is on a scale from zero to infinity. For living
organisms, the key reference point on the scale is found at 6,500 Bovis
energy units, or the wavelength of red light. From 0 to 6,500 Bovis,
the charge is in the NEGATIVE range, or life-detracting. Below 6,500
Bovis atoms spin to the right and are life-negating or damaging. Above
the 6,500 Bovis point, the energy gradually becomes more POSITIVE, or
life-enhancing and the spin is left or counterclockwise; note that DNA
itself is a left turning spiral. (See Magnetic Therapy: note the
left-handed spin of the North pole of a magnet alkalinizes and
Above 10,000, toxins begin reversing spin to the right, allowing
them to be more easily eliminated from the body without harm. The
optimal minimal energy level for humans is between 8,000 to 10,000
Bovis, or slightly positive. The Earth itself creates energy in the
7,000 to 18,000 range.
Water is "receptive" and possesses the ability to store, carry and
transfer information--that is water has "memory." Even when no trace of
an original substance is left in the water, the vibrational pattern, or
'energy-signature' of the substance can remain. As a solvent water is
the best known conductor of vibration, with information transfer
possible even without direct contact.
The higher bio-electromagnetic field generated by a kundalini
awakening would change the Bovis scale of the water molecules in the
body, and this would change the viscosity, fluidity, bonding angle,
spin, polarization and life-enhancing properties of the water within
our body, as well as increasing the "information" carrying capacity of
the water itself.
Weak external magnetic fields can easily interact with the endogenus
electric field to alter the alignment of molecules in a liquid crystal
on a global scale.
"Unlike liquids which have little or no molecular order, liquid
crystals have an orientational order, in that the molecules are aligned
in some common direction(s), rather like a crystal. But unlike solid
crystals, liquid crystals are flexible, malleable, and
responsive...Liquid crystals typically undergo rapid changes in
orientation or phase transitions when exposed to electric (and
magnetic) fields...they have been found to respond to visible light by
undergoing structural transformations that make them luminesce, i.e.,
to re-emit light...The chemist George Gray, who has studied liquid
crystals for many years, refers to liquid crystals as "tunable
responsive system", and as such, are ideal for making organisms." 173, Mae-Wan Ho, The Rainbow and the Worm.
In bulk water there are high-energy colloids that act as seeds
charged to attract freely roving water molecules. These colloid seeds
form the nuclei of liquid crystals; the charge of the colloid is made
stable through the protection of a coating such as gelatin, albumin or
collagen. Large colloids tend to bounce around and lose their charge
but tiny ones retain their charge. Organisms such as the human
body are made up of colloids and all their flows are based on electric
attractions. Blood cells have a protective coating of albumen which
keeps them charged, stable and uncoagulated. Wrong (especially cooked)
foods destroy the electric charges on the blood cells, which then
coagulate and get sluggish, eventually dying. However if you are able
to take in highly charged colloids from fresh raw foods or Hunza water
the negative charge on the blood cells is enhanced.
General Adaptation Syndrome
The hypothalamus responds to stress by initiating the stress-hormone
cascade starting with the corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH)
followed by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release, and finally
A variety of stressors, both physical and psychological, cause the
neurosecretory cells within the paraventricular nucleus of the
hypothalamus to secrete corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and
arginine vasopressin (AVP) into the microportal circulatory system of
the pituitary stalk. Cells in the hypothalamus which secrete CRH have
synapses which make contact with blood vessels in the hypothalamus that
transport CRH to the anterior pituitary where it stimulates the release
of ACTH. ACTH stimulates the hypothalamus (HPA axis) to immediately
activate the adrenal glands. From the adrenal glands the hormones
epinephrine (adrenaline) norepinephrine (noradrenalin) are secreted
which vasodilate arterioles of the skeletal muscles to prepare them for
action, but cause vasoconstriction elsewhere. This produces quicker
heart rate, higher blood pressure, more frequent breathing. Cortisol
and cortisone suppress the immune system in an effort to conserve
energy for fight or flight. These glucocorticoids promote conversion of
protein and lipids to carbohydrates replenishing energy reserves in the
body. Cortisol feeds back to the hypothalamus to control release of
CRH. There is a circadian (daily) rhythm in ACTH secretion and cortisol
levels which is higher in the morning and cortisol is secreted in
several 'pulses' during the day.
The thyroid gland is stimulated by the thyroid-stimulating hormone
(TSH) to secrete thyroxine to increase metabolism. Gonadotrophins are
secreted which stimulate the reproductive glands to produce less hormones.
The quantity of each kind of hormones the pituitary will secrete
depends on the power of the stressor. The more life threatening the
brain perceives the stressor to be, the more the pituitary is
stimulated. The pituitary responsiveness in hypothyroidism causes
adrenal dysfunction directly and results in hypersecretion of ACTH
mediated by increases in synthesis of CRH and Vasopressin in the
The majority of people respond to stressors with activation of the
sympathetic system. When our HPA axis is chronically fired up, the
stress hormones inhibit and cell division and growth in the hippocampus
and prefrontal cortex. Thus our brain areas for rational thinking and
memory atrophy and shrink leading to depression. The
hypothalamic-pituitary axis imbalance can contribute to increased
gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). When there is abnormal estrogen
negative feedback via the pituitary gland, elevated prolactin can in
turn contribute to elevated estrogen levels or estrogen dominance.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by
gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. In both males
and females, LH stimulates the production of sex steroids from the
gonads. With aging LH levels normally rise with age in both men and
women as hypothalamic estrogen receptors become less sensitive to feedback inhibition.
Due to the reduced sensitivity of prolactin receptors, prolactin
levels are known to rise with age, consequently lowering levels of
growth hormone and testosterone. Long-term supplementation with SAMe
repairs cell membrane fluidity and enhances the sensitivity of
prolactin receptors, as well as GABA and beta-receptors and probably
serotonin and dopamine receptors as well. SAMe and Phosphatidylserine
increases sensitivity of prolactin and cortisol receptors resulting in
lower levels of circulating hormone.
The prolonged HPA axis activation of chronic stress can create amino acid imbalances
due to certain proteins being used up in the energy generating
gluconeogenesis. Central to gluconeogenesis is the metabolism of
glutamate (glutamine and GABA) and proline and a decrease in cysteine
and methionine. There is a loss of serum tryptophan and tyrosine due to
their breakdown in the liver and an increase in glutamate and arginine.
Depression of the immune system can occur with prolonged stress,
dehydration and depression due to an amino acid imbalance generated
from incessant cortisol, CRH and vasopressin secretion. This
immunosuppression is characterized by an amino acid imbalance that
shows an increase in glutamate and arginine and a decrease in
tryptophan, cysteine and methionine.
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