Growth hormone (GH) is a pituitary hormone that stimulates the Thymus gland improving the immune system. The Thymus gland is the master programmer of the T-cells educating them to kill specific enemies. GH causes the body to go into a positive nitrogen balance, building muscle tissue, promoting healing and increasing tendon, ligament and bone strength. GH increases fat burning for energy thus sparing protein and glucose. One of the leading factors in immune system decline is the reduced rate of GH as we age. The Thymus gland is affected by this GH reduction and thus T cells decline in number. An alert T cell system is necessary for the prevention of cancer and plaque formation in the arteries.Growth hormone is released during the first few hours of sleep, during fasting, in higher temperatures such as a sauna, during physical trauma and intense exercise. GH stimulates protein production and causes fat cells to release fatty acids and the liver to increase the rate of fat burning. By increasing the oxidation of fatty acids and reducing the size of fat cells GH can reduce body fat without lowering caloric intake. GH slowly decreases after the teen years resulting in increased body fat and decreased muscle mass and lowered immune response as we age. Since teenagers have a high production of GH they can remain thin while eating all they want.
Insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia are often associated with obesity, and obesity impairs growth hormone (GH) secretion. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is the enzyme that primarily controls the accumulation of fat in adipose tissue. Insulin is the hormone with the greatest ability to stimulate this enzyme, while epinephrine, testosterone and estrogen down regulate LPL. GH promotes lipolysis or the mobilization of fatty acids so that they can potentially be used as fuel and GH also appears to directly stimulate the oxidation of fats, perhaps by upregulating key mitochondrial enzymes involved in fat oxidation.
GH actually increases lipid oxidation at the expense of glucose oxidation by activating the glucose-fatty acid cycle where the preferential use of fat as a fuel inhibits the use of glucose as fuel. In this way growth hormone slows skeletal muscle breakdown during fasting in an attempt to preserve skeletal muscle at the expense of increased fat oxidation for fuel. So during periods of caloric restriction, GH is responsible for less reliance on glucose and protein for energy, with fat being preferentially oxidized. This is how GH supplementation can induce insulin resistance: GH reduces the uptake of free fatty acids by fat cells, when more fatty acids are used as fuel, cells take up less glucose for use as fuel, leading to glucose intolerance.
Questions: If GH increases fat burning and can lead to insulin resistance and to high blood sugar, how does higher blood sugar tie into glutamate production and receptor/axion damage to nerves? How does high blood sugar relate to energy generation in the mitochondrias and the percentage of generation of energy from sugar or fat? What do these different modes of energy generation have to do with the metamorphic state?
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