Dr. Batmanghelidj claims that dehydration causes a severe depletion of the amino acid tryptophan in the brain. And tryptophan (along with its derivatives serotonin, tryptamine, melatonin and indolamine) operates a measuring mechanism for the amount of salt that is kept in the body. As tryptophan dependent neurotransmitter systems become less effective with dehydration, then the histamine and RA system becomes increasingly engaged in inducing salt retention; for the body retains salt in an effort to keep water in the body. Water shortage and consequent histamine release increases the breakdown of tryptophan in the liver. When there is adequate water and the brain's tryptophan levels are restored, and so histamine-operated systems will revert to their primary nonexaggerated functions.Tryptophan is also an important precursor to acetyl-CoA, which in turn is responsible for manufacture of cholesterol and acetylcholine. During dehydration more of the body's tryptophan is perhaps assigned to cholesterol production for waterproofing vessels and cell membranes against water loss. The sebum produced by the sebaceous glands contains cholesterol and cholesterol esters among other things. If you drink adequate water you will notice the pores on your face become finer and no longer fill with excess sebum. This means that more tryptophan is made available for other things than plugging the dam against water loss.
Tryptophan is the precursor to Serotonin, an inhibitory neurotransmitter needed for sleep, relaxation, satiety and temperature regulation. It is also the precursor to Picolinic acid which assists in Zinc assimilation. Tryptophan also stimulates Growth Hormone Release, increases the pain threshold, reduces sugar craving and compulsivity. The nutritional supplement 5-Hydroxy Tryptophan (5-HTP) is a form of which 70% is converted to Serotonin compared with 5% with L-tryptophan. A safe dose is 50-100 mg/day of 5-HTP. It is found as a component of dietary protein, particularly in spinach, spirulina, seaweed, chocolate, oats, bananas, dried dates, milk, yogurt, cottage cheese, meat, fish, turkey, chicken, eggs, sesame, mushrooms and peanuts.
Tryptophan is the precursor to the water-soluble vitamin Niacin (nicotinic acid) or B3. The synthesis of niacin from tryptophan also depends on enzymes that require vitamin B6 and riboflavin, as well as an enzyme containing heme (iron). On average, 1 mg of niacin can be synthesized from the ingestion of 60 mg of tryptophan.
Living organisms derive most of their energy from oxidation-reduction (redox) reactions, which are processes involving the transfer of electrons. As many as 200 enzymes require the niacin coenzymes NAD and NADP, mainly to accept or donate electrons for redox reactions. Niacin is involved in cellular respiration as it is used by the body to form the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). These two coenzymes are capable of receiving hydrogen atoms in the Krebs cycle. This cycle is one that unlocks the energy found in fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. In addition to its synthesis from dietary niacin, NAD may also be synthesized in the liver from the dietary amino acid, tryptophan. Without NAD and NADP, the cycle could not function properly and you couldn't use any of the energy from the food you ingest.
NAD functions most often in reactions involving the breakdown (catabolism) of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, and alcohol to produce energy. NADP functions more often in biosynthetic (anabolic) reactions, such as in the synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol. Like the other B vitamins, niacin helps in the metabolism of fats. Medical doses of niacin can help lower blood fat (cholesterol) and free fatty acids.
Niacin is a vasodilator, which produces a hot flush and itching sensation throughout your entire body. It does this by stimulating prostaglandin release, which dilates blood vessels thus lowering blood pressure and heart rate. Because of its ability to dilate the veins, niacin can help in headaches and promote the free flow of blood. Due to itching and heat megadosage of nicotinic acid is not advised, it is preferred to take nicotinamide, which is another form of vitamin B3 normally used in nutritional supplements.
B3 is involved in cellular respiration and the generation of ATP, so some of the heat flush could be ascribed to an increase in metabolism due to increased B3 levels. During kundalini the body might be scavenging tryptophan to convert to B3 and NAD/NADP in order to increase metabolism according to the demand of the hyperactived HPA axis. The heat of kundalini would thereby follow the same rhythmic cycle as cortisol and adrenaline release throughout the day. Such a niacin production cycle could contribute to the kundalini symptoms of heat, tingles, alertness, expanded heart and vessels, coupled with fatigue from low blood pressure. Obviously the end result of this utilization of tryptophan in "emergency" energy production would be a tryptophan deficiency. This would mean a down-regulation of serotonin and melatonin production and associated depression. Higher levels of estrogen associated with various phases of kundalini would increase the efficiency of niacin synthesis from tryptophan.
The niacin coenzyme, NAD, is the substrate (reactant) for used by the body to form the coenzyme ADP-ribosyl cyclase, which catalyzes the formation of cyclic ADP-ribose, a molecule that works within cells to provoke the release of calcium ions from internal storage sites, and probably also plays a role in cell signaling.
Evidence indicates that high levels of nicotinamide (but not nicotinic acid) protect b-cells from damage by toxic chemicals and free radicals from inflammatory white blood cells. Interferon-gamma (IF-g) is a cytokine produced by cells of the immune system in response to infection. IF-g is known to increase the breakdown of tryptophan. Infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), increases the risk of niacin deficiency. Higher levels of niacin intake were associated with decreased progression rate to AIDS and improved survival.
The tolerable upper intake level for niacin is 35 mg/day to avoid the adverse effect of flushing. Good sources of niacin include yeast, meat, poultry, fish, cereals, legumes, seeds, milk and green leafy vegetables.
Cysteine is a sulphur containing non-essential amino acid, which is formed from methionine. It is necessary in the detoxification of harmful toxins, protecting the liver and brain from damage. It is required in the manufacture of taurine and is a component of glutathione, the body's main antioxidant. Skin nails and hair contain cysteine - and it is not only important in collagen production but also assists in skin elasticity and texture. Cysteine has been found to help strengthen the protective lining of the stomach and intestines; having a healthy gut also boosts immunity because about 65% of your immune system is in the GI tract. N-acetylcysteine helps to prevent side effects from chemotherapy and radiation therapy. NAC has shown positive effects on liver function, protecting the liver from heavy metals like lead and mercury. L-cysteine can also be converted into glucose (for energy production) when blood glucose levels are low and this conversion may enhance athletic endurance and prevent muscle catabolism.
Free radicals are constantly produced in biological tissues and play a role in various signaling pathways. Abnormally high free radical concentrations cause oxidative stress associated with tissue damage and dysregulation of physiological signals. Such oxidative stress increases with age.
The secret to long life is to reduce circulating insulin levels by preventing blood sugar spiking and to increase the sensitivity of insulin receptors. Cysteine is used in the body to produce taurine, which might reduce HPA axis activation thereby preventing insulin overactivity. Taurine helps to regulate blood pressure, helps maintain good vision and eye function, and aides in thermogenesis (fat burning) and muscle building.
L-cysteine is also a component of the hormone insulin. N-acetylcysteine and taurine prevent hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance possibly through preventing oxidative stress. Exposure to high concentrations of glucose and insulin results in insulin resistance, or glucose intolerance. High glucose has also been associated with oxidative stress, and increased levels of free radicals have been proposed to cause insulin resistance. Studies show that oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of hyperglycemia-induced insulin resistance.
L-cysteine is essential for T-cell production and immune system activation. Studies show that cysteine facilitates the proliferation of lymphocytes, while glutamate inhibits their proliferation. Youthful parameters can be improved through adequate dietary consumption of cysteine--found in high protein foods such as poultry, wheat, broccoli, eggs as well as garlic, onions and red peppers. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has been shown to be more effective at boosting glutathione levels than supplements of cystine or even of glutathione itself, probably because NAC is more water soluble, and therefore more bioavailable than regular L-Cysteine.
A safe Upper Limit is around 200mg 2-3 times a day (must be taken with Vitamins C and B Complex).
Insulin has anabolic effects on protein synthesis. Besides letting sugar into the cells insulin also opens the gates for the uptake of water and other elements. To conserve energy and ration water during dehydration the body will reduce insulin secretion and thereby increase blood sugar. When dehydration is so chronic that the body's neurotransmitter systems (particularly serotonin) are affected, the brain initiates measures to ensure adequate glucose for energy. When there is inadequate water for hydroelectricity histamine is stimulated and activates prostaglandins (PG) to help prioritize water distribution. PG-E acts on the pancreas to inhibit insulin production, because insulin's action on cells is to increase the uptake of water along with sugar, potassium and amino acids. In this way free water can be conserved for "priority functions" such as the pancreas's important job of creating the bicarbonate solution that neutralizes the chime in the small intestine.
Several regions of the brain including the hypothalamus participate in the regulation of hunger and satiation. Insulin, leptin and free fatty acids are metabolic modulators of the changes in the brain related to feeding. Insulin stimulates synthesis of arachydonic acid and prostaglandins-Series 2 that are pro anti-inflammatory, vasoconstricting, pro-carcinogen and pro-hypertensive.
Since my last awakening my insulin resistance is up (glucose intolerance)...and I find I cannot tolerate cooked carbohydrates of a high glycemic nature...the next day after eating rice or quinoa I am very thick headed and descended. The glycemic index for rice ranges all the way from 54 to 132 and for potatoes from 67 to 158. Pearled barley has a glycemic index of 36 which is much lower than any other grain. Hulless barley--particularly the non-waxy variety--has an even lower glycemic index than pearled barley, because pearling removes some of the fiber.
You can add fat to a high glycemic food, which will reduce the glycemic response, but the insulin response could remain unchanged. This means that a combination of fat and sugar produces a mild glycemic response, but a powerful fat-storing insulin response. When high glycemic foods are totally replaced with low glycemic foods, the result is an overall decline in blood sugar and insulin levels.
Cortisol and insulin are potent stimulators of leptin, whereas beta-adrenergic agonists reduce leptin expression. Since leptin levels are chronically increased in obese humans, it is assumed that obesity may be associated with malfunctioning leptin receptors (leptin resistance), since leptin is unable to generate an adequate response when its receptor is occupied. Improving the sensitivity of leptin receptors in obese patients may be one key to appetite reduction and weight loss.
The Neuroendocrine Theory of Aging proposes ageing is associated with elevated levels of glucose, insulin and leptin along with the down-regulation of receptors--that is insulin resistance and leptin resistance. Leptin and insulin receptor sensitivity can be improved by preventing blood sugar spikes and when receptor sensitivity is reinstated serum levels of these hormones come down. The key is to avoid spiking of blood sugar from excessive sugar/carbohydrate consumption (hyperglycemia)...this then prevents elevated levels of these hormones and averts the down-regulation of receptors. By increasing receptor sensitivity this then resets the hypothalamus and appetite is reduced. It stands to reason then our carbohydrate quotient should consist of low glycemic, non-starchy, high fiber foods to prevent blood sugar spiking. Constantly provoking leptin and insulin levels with erratic compulsive eating patterns creates insulin resistance/diabetes, obesity, oxidation of receptors and inflammation.
Fish oil is known to increase the sensitivity of insulin and leptin receptors, but spirulina is a more direct (lower on the food chain) way to get your omega oils. Spirulina contains more Omega 6 and Omega 3 than any other whole-food source and itís 58 times richer in organic iron than raw spinach. It contains every natural known antioxidant including zinc, manganese, selenium and copper, vitamin E, vitamins B-1 and B-6, the amino acid methionine and beta-carotene. It is rich in chlorophyll, much richer than wheat grass and alfalfa and is a complete protein.
(See Kundalini and Diet--for optimal serum factor levels and receptor sensitivity I recommend a combination of the RAVE diet and the ProVita Plan.)
For restoring receptor sensitivity see Ward Dean M.D's articles at www.vrp.com Neuroendocrine Theory of Aging Chapter 7 Restoring Receptor Sensitivity: Parts I to V.
Caffeine leads to the exhaustion of the energy reserves of cells by conversion of ATP to AMP and similarly aspartate converts the energy molecule GTP to into its "ash" GMP. [Adenosine monophospate (AMP) is a nucleotide found in RNA. It can be converted to IMP freeing one ammonia group. In a catabolic pathway AMP can be converted to uric acid and excreted from the body. AMP can be synthesized during ATP synthesis by combining two ADP molecules.]
The following is not from Dr. Batmanghelidj's work, but is an emerging science of how water can raise and lower its vibration with regards to treatment, and possible influences on life-cells of these various water frequencies.
Each cell is a receiver and transmitter of vibration, with its own characteristic frequency. Each cell in the body receives vibrational energies from the earth and nature. Every atom, molecule, or substance has its own unique oscillation pattern, or vibration, which can be measured in electromagnetic wavelengths, or "Bovis." This energy is also referred to as "Biophotons", which are light particles invisible to our eyes. The Life Force Index or Bovis Scale was named after a French physicist Antoine Bovis, who postulated this scale while doing research among the Great Pyramids of Egypt in the 1930's.
This Bovis Energy Scale measures how positively or negatively charged a substance is on a scale from zero to infinity. For living organisms, the key reference point on the scale is found at 6,500 Bovis energy units, or the wavelength of red light. From 0 to 6,500 Bovis, the charge is in the NEGATIVE range, or life-detracting. Below 6,500 Bovis atoms spin to the right and are life-negating or damaging. Above the 6,500 Bovis point, the energy gradually becomes more POSITIVE, or life-enhancing and the spin is left or counterclockwise; note that DNA itself is a left turning spiral. (See Magnetic Therapy: note the left-handed spin of the North pole of a magnet alkalinizes and oxygenates.)
Above 10,000, toxins begin reversing spin to the right, allowing them to be more easily eliminated from the body without harm. The optimal minimal energy level for humans is between 8,000 to 10,000 Bovis, or slightly positive. The Earth itself creates energy in the 7,000 to 18,000 range.
Water is "receptive" and possesses the ability to store, carry and transfer information--that is water has "memory." Even when no trace of an original substance is left in the water, the vibrational pattern, or 'energy-signature' of the substance can remain. As a solvent water is the best known conductor of vibration, with information transfer possible even without direct contact.
The higher bio-electromagnetic field generated by a kundalini awakening would change the Bovis scale of the water molecules in the body, and this would change the viscosity, fluidity, bonding angle, spin, polarization and life-enhancing properties of the water within our body, as well as increasing the "information" carrying capacity of the water itself.
Weak external magnetic fields can easily interact with the endogenus electric field to alter the alignment of molecules in a liquid crystal on a global scale.
"Unlike liquids which have little or no molecular order, liquid
crystals have an orientational order, in that the molecules are aligned
in some common direction(s), rather like a crystal. But unlike solid
crystals, liquid crystals are flexible, malleable, and
responsive...Liquid crystals typically undergo rapid changes in
orientation or phase transitions when exposed to electric (and
magnetic) fields...they have been found to respond to visible light by
undergoing structural transformations that make them luminesce, i.e.,
to re-emit light...The chemist George Gray, who has studied liquid
crystals for many years, refers to liquid crystals as "tunable
responsive system", and as such, are ideal for making organisms." 173, Mae-Wan Ho, The Rainbow and the Worm.
In bulk water there are high-energy colloids that act as seeds
charged to attract freely roving water molecules. These colloid seeds
form the nuclei of liquid crystals; the charge of the colloid is made
stable through the protection of a coating such as gelatin, albumin or
collagen. Large colloids tend to bounce around and lose their charge
but tiny ones retain their charge. Organisms such as the human
body are made up of colloids and all their flows are based on electric
attractions. Blood cells have a protective coating of albumen which
keeps them charged, stable and uncoagulated. Wrong (especially cooked)
foods destroy the electric charges on the blood cells, which then
coagulate and get sluggish, eventually dying. However if you are able
to take in highly charged colloids from fresh raw foods or Hunza water
the negative charge on the blood cells is enhanced.
The hypothalamus responds to stress by initiating the stress-hormone cascade starting with the corticotrophin releasing hormone (CRH) followed by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release, and finally glucocorticoid production.
A variety of stressors, both physical and psychological, cause the neurosecretory cells within the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus to secrete corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) into the microportal circulatory system of the pituitary stalk. Cells in the hypothalamus which secrete CRH have synapses which make contact with blood vessels in the hypothalamus that transport CRH to the anterior pituitary where it stimulates the release of ACTH. ACTH stimulates the hypothalamus (HPA axis) to immediately activate the adrenal glands. From the adrenal glands the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) norepinephrine (noradrenalin) are secreted which vasodilate arterioles of the skeletal muscles to prepare them for action, but cause vasoconstriction elsewhere. This produces quicker heart rate, higher blood pressure, more frequent breathing. Cortisol and cortisone suppress the immune system in an effort to conserve energy for fight or flight. These glucocorticoids promote conversion of protein and lipids to carbohydrates replenishing energy reserves in the body. Cortisol feeds back to the hypothalamus to control release of CRH. There is a circadian (daily) rhythm in ACTH secretion and cortisol levels which is higher in the morning and cortisol is secreted in several 'pulses' during the day.
The thyroid gland is stimulated by the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) to secrete thyroxine to increase metabolism. Gonadotrophins are secreted which stimulate the reproductive glands to produce less hormones. The quantity of each kind of hormones the pituitary will secrete depends on the power of the stressor. The more life threatening the brain perceives the stressor to be, the more the pituitary is stimulated. The pituitary responsiveness in hypothyroidism causes adrenal dysfunction directly and results in hypersecretion of ACTH mediated by increases in synthesis of CRH and Vasopressin in the hypothalamus.
The majority of people respond to stressors with activation of the sympathetic system. When our HPA axis is chronically fired up, the stress hormones inhibit and cell division and growth in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Thus our brain areas for rational thinking and memory atrophy and shrink leading to depression. The hypothalamic-pituitary axis imbalance can contribute to increased gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH). When there is abnormal estrogen negative feedback via the pituitary gland, elevated prolactin can in turn contribute to elevated estrogen levels or estrogen dominance.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) is a hormone synthesised and secreted by gonadotropes in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. In both males and females, LH stimulates the production of sex steroids from the gonads. With aging LH levels normally rise with age in both men and women as hypothalamic estrogen receptors become less sensitive to feedback inhibition.
Due to the reduced sensitivity of prolactin receptors, prolactin levels are known to rise with age, consequently lowering levels of growth hormone and testosterone. Long-term supplementation with SAMe repairs cell membrane fluidity and enhances the sensitivity of prolactin receptors, as well as GABA and beta-receptors and probably serotonin and dopamine receptors as well. SAMe and Phosphatidylserine increases sensitivity of prolactin and cortisol receptors resulting in lower levels of circulating hormone.
The prolonged HPA axis activation of chronic stress can create amino acid imbalances due to certain proteins being used up in the energy generating gluconeogenesis. Central to gluconeogenesis is the metabolism of glutamate (glutamine and GABA) and proline and a decrease in cysteine and methionine. There is a loss of serum tryptophan and tyrosine due to their breakdown in the liver and an increase in glutamate and arginine. Depression of the immune system can occur with prolonged stress, dehydration and depression due to an amino acid imbalance generated from incessant cortisol, CRH and vasopressin secretion. This immunosuppression is characterized by an amino acid imbalance that shows an increase in glutamate and arginine and a decrease in tryptophan, cysteine and methionine.
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