Biology of Kundalini A Science and Protocol of Spiritual Alchemy    

Histamine

   

Histamines use in the body is not soley involved in allergic inflammatory response. The hormone/chemical transmitter histamine is a biogenic monoamine similar to serotonin, epinephrine and norepinephrine. Chemically histamine is 2-(4-imidazolyl)ethylamine and has the formula C5H9N3. It is found in plant and animal tissue and released from mast cells as part of an allergic reaction. It stimulates gastric secretion and causes dilation of capillaries, constriction of bronchial smooth muscle, and decreased blood pressure and plays a role in the movement (chemotaxis) of white blood cells. It is hydrophilic and once formed is either stored or rapidly inactivated. Most tissue histamine is found in granules in mast cells or basophils and its release is immunologic in function. Mast cells are especially numerous at sites of potential injury such as the nose, mouth, and feet, internal body surfaces and blood vessels. Basophils represent only 1% of circulating leukocytes. Like mast cells basophils store histamine, they tend to appear in specific kinds of inflammatory reactions, particularly those that cause allergic symptoms. Non-mast cell histamine is found in several tissues, including the brain, where it functions as a neurotransmitter. Another important site of histamine storage and release is the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell of the stomach. ECL cells are a distinctive type of neuroendocrine cell in the gastric mucosa underlying the epithelium, most prevalent in the acid-secreting regions of the stomach. Together, histamine and gastrin are primary positive regulators of acid secretion from the parietal cell. The four types of histamine receptors each have a different mode of action:



  • H1 histamine receptor--found on smooth muscle, endothelium, and central nervous system tissue; causes vasodilation, bronchoconstriction, smooth muscle activation, and separation of endothelial cells (hives/bleeding from the pores), and pain and itching due to insect stings; the primary receptors involved in allergic rhinitis symptoms and motion sickness. Initiates release of intracellular stores of Ca2+ and opens Voltage gated Calcium channels.


  • H2 histamine receptor--located on parietal cells, which primarily regulate gastric acid secretion. It is a potent stimulant of cAMP production. It increase s the intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and release Ca2+ from intracellular stores.


  • H3 histamine receptor--The H3 also been shown to presynaptically inhibit the release of a number of other neurotransmitters (i.e. it acts as an inhibitory heteroreceptor) including, but probably not limited to dopamine, GABA, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, and serotonin. It leads to inhibition of the formation of cAMP


  • H4 histamine receptor--Found primarily in bone marrow and white blood cells. It is also expressed in the colon, liver, lung, small intestine, spleen, testes, thymus, tonsils, and trachea. H4 Receptors mediate Chemotaxis and Calcium Mobilization of Mast Cells.

Increased histamine is probably common throughout an awakening, but if there was also a threat to life then a greater amount of histamine might be suddenly released. The kundalini symptom of sweating blood is undoubtedly due to the increased release of histamine during extreme stress, such as in the case of Jesus. Histamine produces larger pores in the blood vessel walls as the first step in launching an inflammatory response. The increased blood vessel porosity improves brain nutrition in times of emergency, when high performance is needed for survival. The release of histamine in the brain and the consequent improvement of blood supply is probably one of the main reasons for the increased sensory and extrasensory perception during kundalini. Brain nutrition and oxygen supply would be greatly enhanced by the dilated and porous blood vessels, opening up latent capacities. The release of histamine in the brain, even by itself, would lead to some expansion of consciousness, but it is just one factor among many that occur during peak events. Histamine release during peak events would amplify the effects of all other hormonal, neurochemical and nutritional agents.

Histamine release is probably most significant during the periods of panic attack when hypervigilance is at its peak. Histamine factors into the hypervigilance because histaminergic cells in the brain promote the most "wakeful" firing pattern. In fact a sudden rush of histamine in the brain could contribute to a schizophrenic episode. Histamine features in the panic events by causing a closing of the airways in the lungs. When released in the lungs, histamine causes the airways to swell shut in an attempt to close the door on offending allergens and keep them out. Panic attack periods during kundalini are known for the sense of weight or contraction on the lungs. As a consequence the sense of suffocation and lack of oxygen will force the individual out of the house for long walks accompanied by deep breathing.

Heat--Research on the ability to withstand heat stress identified histamine receptors as contributing to increased blood flow during heat stress, but only the H1 receptor was involved in skin blood flow changes.

Sleep--It has been shown that histaminergic cells have the most "wakeful" firing pattern of any neuronal type. They fire rapidly during waking, and completely stop firing during sleep. The cell bodies of neurons which release histamine as a neurotransmitter are found in the posterior hypothalamus, in various tuberomammillary nuclei. From here, these histaminergic neurons project throughout the brain, to the cortex through the medial forebrain bundle. Antihistamines, that is substances that block the H1 histamine receptors improve sleep. Likewise, destruction of histamine releasing neurons, or inhibition of histamine synthesis leads to an inability to maintain vigilance. Finally, H3 receptor antagonists (which stimulate histamine release) increase wakefulness.

Sex--Histamine is released as part of sexual arousal from mast cells in the genitals, and histamine release has been connected to the sex flush in women. The female orgasm can be facilitated by supplemental folic acid along with niacin, which will increase histamine release. Conversely, men with high histamine levels may suffer from premature ejaculations.

Allergies--Histamine is an important protein involved in many allergic reactions. An antigen must first be attached to cell surface receptors on mast cells. This triggers a response that often includes the release of histamine. Most allergies involve the release of histamine and other pro-inflammatory substances.

Allergic reactions typically have an adrenal component. Cortisol, one of the primary hormones produced by the adrenal glands, is a strong anti-inflammatory agent. For this reason proper adrenal function plays an important role in mediating the histamine release and inflammatory reactions that produce the symptoms experienced with allergies. A vicious circle occurs with adrenal fatigue and the tendency to experience allergies. The more histamine that is released the harder the adrenals have to work to produce more cortisol, thereby the more fatigued the adrenals become, which increases allergic inflammation in a vicious circle. With the extreme nature of kundalini it makes sense to take whatever toll we can off our adrenals by reducing our food allergens and avoid environmental conditions of a toxic or inflammatory nature. For a adrenal support program read--Adrenal Fatigue: the 21st Century Stress Syndrome by Dr. James Wilson.

The carbohydrate digesting enyme Amylase is a natural IgG histamine blocker, which stabilizes mast cells and basophils that release histamine at the start of an inflammatory response. The excessive consumption of carbohydrates will chronically deplete amylase thereby increasing histamine-related health problems such as allergen reactions and sinus headaches. Relief can be achieved through using plant-based enzymes with meals, as well as reducing carbohydrate consumption. Chronic carbohydrate consumption creates stress which exhausts the adrenal glands and the immune system, leaving the body open to attack. Enzymes normally break down allergens into smaller components in order to eliminate it without stressing the body. But in the case of allergic symptoms--when there are inadequate enzymes reserves in the body histamine is released rather than enzymatic breakdown of the allergens.

When we eat carbohydrates, a small amount of digestion takes place as we chew through the actions of the enzyme amylase, which is found in the saliva. However in the stomach, food is bathed in hydrochloric acid, which inhibits starch digestion until food exits the stomach and enters the small intestine. Most complex carbohydrate digestion takes place in the duodenum, which is the section of the small intestine which adjoins the stomach. Here another key enzyme called alpha-amylase, joins with hydrochloric acid to breakdown the exceptionally long starch molecule into its component parts: first into sugars called dextrins, and then into glucose.

Reduction in amylase levels is associated with insulin resistence and glucose intolerance. Insulin plays a major role in the control of pancreatic amylase biosynthesis. The development of severe insulin resistance (hyperinsulinaemia) is associated with impairment of amylase-gene expression and reduction in glucose metabolism. To decrease insulin resistance, one group of adult obese rats was treated with Ciglitazone for 4 weeks. By lowering plasma insulin concentration researchers achieved normalization of glucose metabolism and a marked increase of both amylase content of pancreatic tissue and amylase mRNA.

Pancreatic enzymes are released in response to histamine, as a protective measure against ingestion of allergens and pathogens. If a prolonged awakening includes periodic release of histamine during the alarm/activation phases, this could lead to the overworking and depletion of the pancreas. Thus the exhaustion phase would include a reduction in digestive fire and assimilation, coupled with vulnerability of the GI Tract to allergens and pathogens. One way to avoid this is to take papaya or bromelin tablets with meals throughout active kundalini in order to conserve the body's own enzymes and insure adequate digestion. Also take teas of chamomile, valerian, skullcap and wild yam half an hour prior to mealtime to stimulate stomach acid.

Central to the perturbation of normal consciousness, kundalini awakenings are characteristically noted for alterations in the brain's "filtering system," leading to expansion in the range and depth of consciousness, sensory perception and extra-sensory perception. Histamine is involved in balancing the electrical activity of the nucleus accumbens, which is an area of the brain responsible for behavioral responses, filtering incoming sensory information, and communicating with the hypothalamus, ventral tegmentum, and amygdala. From the following one can see clearly what type of kundalini trip one is programmed to go on depending on whether one's physiology leans toward high histamine or low histamine. Abnormal histamine levels are found in both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

Histadelia (High Histamine): It is estimated that 15-20 % of people with schizophrenia have high whole blood histamine levels and are under-methylated. High histamine individuals are more "Yang," have low serotonin levels and typically have a history of seasonal allergies. This condition is characterized by low levels of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, high whole blood histamine and elevated basophils (ie: the white blood cells that release chemicals such as histamine and play a role in the inflammatory response to infection). They tend toward obsessive compulsiveness, perfectionism, high libido, sparse body hair, and delusional thinking rather than hallucinations. High histamine individuals are inherently high in folic acid; folic acid is used along with B-12 in the production of histamine. So those with high histamine levels need to avoid taking folic acid and B-12. About 35% of bipolar patients have high histamine levels.

Histapenia (Low Histamine): It is found that 30-40 % of people with schizophrenia have low whole blood histamine levels and are over-methylated. People with low histamine are more "Yin" tend toward more severe thought disorder and hallucinations, paranoid thoughts with less pronounced obsessions, despair, depression, low libido, anxiety, nervous legs and grandiosity. These individuals often have a multitude of food allergies and environmental allergies but they do not typically have seasonal allergies. Histapenia is characterized by low blood zinc, elevated levels of serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine, low whole blood histamine, and low basophils. Those with histapenia have excess copper, which is a brain stimulant and destroys histamine; causing brain dopamine levels to rise; copper then oxidizes catecholamines such as dopamine thus propagating neurotoxin formation. This causes paranoia and hallucinations in younger individuals, but depression may predominate in the older ones. About 25% of bipolar patients have low histamine levels.

Anti-histamine substances which naturally reduce inflammation and associated symptoms include:

Vitamin C, vitamin E, sulfur, essential fatty acids, MSM, pancreatic enzymes, alpha lipoic acid, glucosamine sulfate, proanthocyanidins and NAC.

List of antihistamine foods: Chamomile, wild oregano, rue, basil, echinacea, fennel, fig, ginkgo, grapefruit, passionflower, tarragon, tumeric, skullcap, berberine, thyme and yarrow, papaya, amaranth seeds, ginger and stinging nettle, The combination of quercetin and bromelain helps maintain the proper functioning of the body's histamine response. Boswellia inhibits pro-inflammatory mediators in the body, and may be helpful for ulcerative colitis. CM, Cetyl Myristoleateis used for various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and psoriasis. This waxy substance seems to have the ability to correct certain autoimmune dysfunctions by reprogramming "memory T cells" that attack the body and relieve inflammation while lubricating joints many times more effectively than essential fatty acids. Resveratrol is an antioxidant, antimutagenic, antiviral and anti-inflammatory. It is also a powerful phytoestrogen that can help maintain normal estrogen activity. Applied topically the oils of caraway, cardamon, chamomile, clove and lemon balm.

Reading: Carl Pfeiffer's book Mental Illness: The Nutrition Connection, will aid you in changing your histamine metabolism if you feel the need.

NITRIC OXIDE AND HISTAMINE

The reason why histamine is a key agent in kundalini physiology is because it is intimately involved with Nitric Oxide. Histamine level changes underlies many kundalini symptoms and experiences, amplifying and augmenting any existing chemistry. Researchers working on how histamine levels determine the various phases of a kundalini awakening need to consider both the Toxic Mind Theory and the Neuroendocrine Theory of Aging. Research will show that various events and physiological cycles in kundalini are mediated by the interaction of histamine and Nitric Oxide.

As we have read above in the Nitric Oxide section, NO is an essential component the body uses in many functions including neurotransmission and vasodilation. However in excess it is also a potent nitrogen free radical with the capacity to kill neurons and cells in general. Histamine up-regulates the generation of nitric oxide, and nitric oxide down-regulates the release of histamine. NO might serve a protective role in down-regulating histamine release from mast cells. Stimulation of H1 receptors increases eNOS transcription, and this may become harmful in conditions of oxidative stress when eNOS produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the expense of NO. We know that certain kundalini events, such as a die-off, involve highly oxidative conditions. NO can act as an anti-inflammatory under normal conditions, but can lead to inflammation when over produced.

Several factors increase levels of NO in the body: Allergies (histamine), poor iron status, hypoxia (oxygen deficiency), estrogen dominance and Carbon Monoxide exposure. Histamine release stimulates NO synthesis and release. It is proposed that the increased permeability of the blood/brain barrier associated with histamine release is actually mediated by NO. Low iron levels can increase NO levels because hemoglobin is one of the complexing factors that bind NO in the blood rendering it inactive. Thus we must assure that our diet contains adequate iron. NO in turn helps to protect against the release of oxidative free iron from iron-containing compounds. Hypoxia or low oxygen content of the blood cause the release of NO in order to relax the blood vessels in order to increase bloodflow to the tissue. The H1 receptor mediates the relaxation of blood vessels and this is entirely dependent on NO production.

NO synthesis may also become too active under conditions where there is an excess of estrogen in relation to progesterone. Estrogen dominance inhibits thyroid function and can result from taking birth control pills, hormone replacement therapy, or exposure to environmental estrogens. A poorly functioning liver, exhausted adrenal glands, insulin resistance, compromised digestion and candida can also contribute to estrogen dominance. When there is inadequate estrogen negative feedback via the pituitary gland, elevated prolactin can in turn contribute to elevated estrogen levels (estrogen dominance).

It is apparent to me both from logic and from observation of the feminization of Guru-types, that the later stages of kundalini awakening, and especially the exhaustion phase, are associated with increased estrogen dominance in both men and women. I surmise that the high lipolysis, high oxidation, high heat, overworked liver, increased membrane permeability, increased metabolic and nerve activity, increased hormonal profile and thermogenic/futile cycling ATP generation methods of a kundalini awakening all contribute toward an increase in potential damage from NO. For this reason the histamine-NO relationship should be addressed during the establishment of a comprehensive kundalini protocol. Although I advise against using glutamate and arginine/ornithine during the peak, when well into the exhaustion phase we need to take these, and perhaps even histidine also to rebuild the histamine system. Of course for hormone and neurotransmitter health it is our human and relational world that determines their health or not...manufacturing a healthy supportive environment and relationships is much harder than merely taking supplements.

HISTAMINE AND WATER

During kundalini there is an increase in the demand for water by the body and mind. Therefore throughout an awakening it is recommended that you drink at least 10 glasses of water per day, with a drop of ionic trace minerals in each glass. Water is the foundation of life and the regulator of homeostasis. 75 % of our bodies are composed of water. The brain is 85% water. 66% of that water is inside of the cells and 33% outside. If we don't drink enough water our thickened, concentrated blood will draw water out of the cells.

Fereydoon Batmanghelidj, M.D. author of the book Your Body's Many Cries for Water attributes most degenerative disease to dehydration. His research reveals that unintentional dehydration produces stress, chronic pains and many degenerative diseases including Allergies, Arthritis, Angina, Asthma, Autoimmune Diseases, Back Pain, Colitis, Diabetes, Heartburn, High Blood Cholesterol High Blood Pressure, Migraines and Pain.

Histamine is a drought managing neurotransmitter. When there is dehydration the body manufactures and releases histamine to regulate water intake and ration water throughout the body. Histamine release is a sign of dehydration in the body--it produces pain, asthma and allergies in a valiant effort at drought management. However instead of quenching that drought with water we give it antihistamines.

Normally, when we drink water it directly diffuses into the cells through the cell membrane. But when there is dehydration, there isn't enough water to flow in by hydrostatic pressure. So the blood becomes concentrated and draws water out of the cell. The first inpact of this concentrated, acidic blood is on the membranes of the arteries of the heart themselves. Batmanghelidj says arteries become damaged because their water is extracted by this concentrated blood and consequently cholesterol is laid down as a bandaging system. He points out that hypertension is one of the major indicators of dehydration in the human body, and we further exacerbate the problem by treating it with diuretics that further dehydrate the body will, eventually causes blockage by cholesterol of the heart arteries and the arteries that go to the brain. This leads to heart attacks and small or massive strokes that paralyze. Hypertension will eventually cause kidney disease, brain damage and neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease.

When there is inadequate water to manufacture hydroelectric energy for neurotransmission, histamine is activated to release energy from other sources, such as from bondage of calcium that is in the cells. In every calcium-to-calcium bond is one unit of stored energy. The bones and the calcium deposits in the body are thus energy storage areas. Histamine has the potential to release this energy, so that active exchanges through the cell membrane can take place. One example is the sodium-potassium regulation. Potassium should be in the cell and sodium outside the cell. When there isn't enough energy to keep this pump going, histamine becomes active and releases energy for this pump. This lack of water making the body resort to scavenging energy from calcium bonds might be a leading contribution to osteoporosis. Just think of all those dehydrated old ladies.

Another source of heat generation in kundalini could be from the bones themselves. I always get the feeling that the heat and energy effect of kundalini goes right into and right through the bones, like they become semiconductors and can carry an electric current or something. If histamine features prominently in active kundalini like I think it does, this means some of the extra energy generation of metamorphosis could be due to liberation of energy between calcium-calcium bonds in the bones.

Bones have a piezo-electric property similar to quartz crystals; when there is increased pressure exerted on bones, the electric charge increases proportionally. The Taoist practice of Bone Marrow Breathing uses this piezo-electric effect through squeezing the muscles into the bones and increasing the pressure on the outside of bones. Since histamine release occurs in an effort to generate energy from the calcium in bones when water is not freely available, one would think that practices such as Bone Marrow Breathing that actually increase the energy in bones and muscles would have a stabilizing effect on histamine production in the body and brain.

"As to water and itching...well I have to say that I unpremeditatedly started drinking huge quantities of water about 2 years ago. And now I drink on the order of about 5-6 quarts daily. Plus I have an ongoing problem with ‘dry itchy eyes'. Itchiness has been a sporadic recurring symptom for the last 10 years or so. And I had a really bizarre experience with that last December when I was camping down in Baja.

The week prior I was (and still am) having a LOT of heart symptoms and anomalies. A huge variety of experiences and such related to the heart area. At that time the main thing happening was a vortex opening into an energy that was truly alien feeling. There was a great soreness right in the center of the chest right over the heart that constantly demanded attention. I found myself time and time again rubbing and massaging that area, but much like a loose tooth, the more I worked it the more it ached and itched and opened.

It culminated in a weird opening that lasted about 2 days – at the peak of which I nearly went out of my mind with an intolerable itching. It was exactly as it a whole hive of hornets were emerging from deep within the vortex and were stinging me under the skin. Then the maddening itching emerged along with some wild dreams, vivid hypnagogic phenomena and insomnia and stuff like that... It was relentless and so I couldn't sleep for days, and was trying everything available to dampen the symptoms. It slowly went away, though I still have an amazing array of heart-based stuff going on all the time these days, but fortunately not involving that damnedable itching." Michael DuBois

Because Michael's heart anomaly was most intense right in the center of the chest right over the heart--he was probably producing amrita that flows into the blood and lymph and enters the right side of the heart (at the center of the chest), setting up a self-reforcing cycle of opening. Histamine has a strong vasopressin releasing effect. And besides being an active agent in heart exansions and vessel dilation, vasopressin is responsible for water regulation through the hydrodynamic microtubules of the cell membrane. This one molecule at a time, microstream flow seems to be a major component of the transport system in nerve tissue. So we see how hydration, the circulatory and nerve system are highly interdependent.

The expanded heart increases amrita production in the central nervous system which in turn increases heart expansion. Histamine, vassopressin and nitric oxide are consequently produced in higher quantities. This would lead to an increase in membrane permeability, hypervigilance, hyper-awakeness from the histamine, increase in free radical load from the nitric oxide etc... Heart expansion periods often come with a general heaviness and fatigue; probably due to the parasympathetic/vagus system being highly activated in order to help control the excessive heart expansion and low blood pressure from dilated vessels. The low blood pressure itself would cause fatigue, and as I have said elsewhere in the book the best way to ease this fatigue-condition is to lie on the ground on your spine for half an hour. Dr. Batman says that salt is the best antihistamine there is, so it stands to reason we need to put those ionic minerals in our drinking water...he suggests about 1/2 a tsp of salt a day. --Trace Minerals from the Great Salt Lake.

The water cure recommendation is around 2.5 quarts/10 cups/5pints/2.3 liters  of water per day to maintain ideal hydration. That is above any other type of liquids one might consume. There is also an equation of half your body weight in pounds taken as ounces of water...although this turns out to be somewhat less than the 10 cup range. It is important to add the ionic minerals to this water. It is recommended to drink two glasses of water half an hour before a meal, so that water is not scavenged from other activities in order to serve digestion.

Charging Water--There are many ways to increase the vitality and structure of water. You can place a glass container of water in the sun, put a jug of water on the north pole of a magnet, put a quartz crystal in the water jug. You can collect snow and rain from pollution free environments. One of my favorites, which is ideal for kundalini awakenings is to take some fresh green pine needles and place them in a jar or glass of water...leave it in the sun all day. Then put it in the refridgerator to chill. This makes the most incredible subtle drink which is even taster than champagne.

After all my various paths in investigating this material I found the motherload just recently in Fereydoon Batmanghelidjs' work...Histamine is perhaps the major key in a profound understanding of the physiology of kundalini, with huge implications for everyone, not just those undergoing awakening. --Fereydoon Batmanghelidj, M.D.

Scientific papers at this site include: Neurotransmitter Histamine, Functions of Histamine and Gastroenterology, Gastroenterology and Histamine's functions in the body, Histamine and Serotonin: A Conceptual Approach to Carcinogenesis.

I suggest all serious kundalini researchers "start" with an understanding of Fereydoon Batmanghelidjs' material.



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